However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation e. The results support the rich-get-rir hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis. Romantic relationships are common among U. These relationships are opportunities for adolescents to learn about positive relationship dynamics as well as challenges of relationships Manning et al. Thus, understanding the extent of and factors related to adolescents' use of the Internet to meet romantic relationship partners can have important implications for the long-term well-being and health of adolescents.
Furthermore, lonely adolescents McKenna et al. Although research concerning rates of and factors associated with adolescents' online formation of romantic relationships is lacking, scholars have speculated about which adolescents go online to meet romantic partners and the benefits of doing so e. This speculation has considered social skills as well as other social factors that impact the difficulty of forming romantic relationships.
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Some scholars e. Consistent with the rich-get-rir hypothesis, these characteristics of the online environment seem to favor relationship formation for socially adept individuals. Contrarily, consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, some scholars have speculated that people who experience barriers to meeting romantic partners, such as shyness and lack of access to available partners, will particularly benefit from non-traditional methods to find and meet potential romantic partners, such as using the Internet e.
For example, the relative ease of self-disclosure online can lead to attraction e. In addition, the widespread reach of the Internet greatly increases opportunities to find particular types of people. These opportunities are particularly important for some minority groups, such as gay teens e.
Certain groups of adolescents, such as those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer LGBTQmight experience particular difficulty forming romantic relationships offline. Simply because LGBTQ adolescents are a minority group, they have a limited number of potential partners. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, the Internet might help to address these barriers that are experienced by LGBTQ adolescents and to ease the process of initiating romantic relationships for them.
The Internet provides LGBTQ adolescents with an environment in which they can search for, find, and interact with like-minded individuals anonymously and, generally, can do so more safely than in the offline environment. LGBTQ individuals have the potential to learn about another person, such as their sexual identity, through the information that that person posts online, such as on a social network page McKenna, These data, however, lack a direct comparison to non-LGBT youth and a nationally-based sample of adolescents.
The current study examines a rates of online formation of romantic relationships among adolescents and b the influence that social factors and individual characteristics and behaviors have on adolescents' online formation of romantic relationships in order to further test the rich-get-rir and social compensation hypotheses. The rich-get-rir hypothesis would be supported if offline access to potential romantic partners, offline supportive relationships, and popularity are positively related to online relationship initiation.
These positive relationships would suggest that the characteristics that facilitate relationship formation offline also facilitate relationship formation online.
The social compensation hypothesis would be supported if offline access to potential romantic partners, offline supportive relationships, and popularity are negatively related to online relationship initiation. These negative relationships would suggest that the online environment and affordances facilitate relationship formation particularly for adolescents who have difficulty forming relationships offline.
Based upon the literature, these other influential factors include Internet use characteristics e.
Participants were 5, school-attending 1 adolescents in 5 th grade or above residing in the Unites States. Participants were years-old and, on average, With such a low base rate, it is challenging to randomly identify a representative sample large enough to draw statistically valid conclusions. Participants were recruited from a stratified random sample of U.
Qualified respondents indicated informed assent online and completed the survey. The response rate for the HPOL sample 7. The response rate for GLSEN-recruited participants cannot be calculated because we do not know how many people saw the invitations. A waiver of parental consent was granted to protect youth who would be potentially placed in harm's way if their sexual orientation was disclosed to their caregivers.
Weighting procedures were used to align the two samples so that the data would behave consistently with a nationally representative sample within each sample and so that the HPOL and GLSEN-recruited samples could be validly combined.
Respondents who did not meet valid data requirements e. The final sample size was Numbers 0 to 3 were coded consistent with the number and numbers of 4 or more were coded as 4, to address the skew in the distribution. To capture this commonality, we coded these responses to be distinct from other places that were indicated.
Respondents indicated their sexual identity by choosing all options that applied to them-gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, queer, other, and not sure.
Youth also indicated their biological sex at birth male or female and gender male, female, transgender, and other. Offline access to potential partners was assessed, as per Rosenfeld and Thomasby the population density of the respondents' community, with greater population density reflecting a greater number of people in proximity to potentially interact with and suggests a greater number of offline potential partners to potentially interact with urban or suburban area  vs.
Offline popularity was assessed by how many close friends respondents have whom they first met in person. This measure of popularity-number of friends-is a commonly used, simple measure of offline as well as online popularity e. We coded responses from 0 to 6 consistent with the number, responses from 7 to 10 as 7, and responses of 11 or more as 8, to address the skew in the distribution.
Based on DSM criteria for depressive disorders, respondents with sum scores of 8 or lower were coded to reflect no clinically significant depressive symptomatology 1 ; those with higher scores were coded to reflect clinically significant depressive symptomatology 0; Haroz et al, Responses were coded so that larger values reflected greater self-esteem, were summed across items, and then coded to reflect scores one standard deviation above the mean and higher 1 versus all other scores 0.
Therefore, depressive symptomatology and self-esteem were both coded so that larger values reflect better psychological well-being. These factors included respondent-reported race, ethnicity, age, household income, gender, and being born again or evangelical Christian.
They also included Internet use characteristics: a whether respondents have rules for online safety i. Respondents reported whether they were alone and responded honestly when they completed the survey. LGBTQ adolescents also had more offline friends and less i.
This effect remained but was attenuated when offline access to potential partners, offline supportive relationships, offline popularity, and other adolescent characteristics and behaviors that influence relationship initiation in general and online were taken into account.
Self-reported dating experiences of adolescents years of age living across the U. Consistent with the rich-get-rir hypothesis, offline popularity was associated with increased odds of recent online relationship initiation.
Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, offline access to potential partners was associated with decreased odds of recent online relationship initiation. The Internet appears to benefit adolescents who have difficulty forming relationships as well as those who do not. These benefits might be obtained for these different groups as a result of different reasons for looking for partners on the Internet and different processes of relationship formation.
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Adolescents who have difficulty forming relationships because of access issues; lack of safe, supportive social environments; or weak social skills might use the Internet to address these issues.
Thus, they might be using the Internet purposely to form romantic relationships, resulting in relationships similar to what McKenna referred to as targeted relationships.
McKenna limited her definition of targeted relationships to those relationships that develop from interactions on online dating sites. We view targeted relationships more generally as those developed from interactions engaged in purposely to form a relationship, in this case a romantic relationship. Conversely, adolescents who have less difficulty forming relationships generally might be forming romantic relationships online as a byproduct of their online activity paired with their ability to form relationships, resulting in what McKenna referred to as naturally forming relationships where the purpose of the interaction is the activity.
Consistent with this explanation, Peter and colleagues found that introverted adolescents were motivated to communicate online to counter their lack of social skills, which increased the likelihood of forming friendships online. Conversely, they found that extroverted adolescents formed friendships online as a consequence of their frequent online communication and self-disclosure. These results suggest that theoretical advancement in this area might benefit from an integration of the rich-get-rir and social compensation hypotheses.
This integrated hypothesis should specify for whom and under what circumstances adolescents' use of the Internet to form relationships will result in the rich getting rir and under which circumstances this use will result in social compensation. Although adolescent dating rates might be influenced somewhat by current understanding of the terms used to refer to dating Manning et al. They also had greater offline access to potential partners and greater offline popularity. Perhaps the desire to have romantic relationships and the difficulty of forming them offline are insufficient to motivate a greater proportion of LGBTQ adolescents to shift from seeking romantic partners offline to doing so online.
LGBTQ adolescents might be relying on conventional, long-established methods to meet romantic partners e.
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The results of the current study also add to our knowledge of how commonly adolescents use the Internet to form romantic relationships. Even though adolescents are using the Internet to form romantic relationships, they seem to continue to rely on conventional, long-established methods to meet romantic partners.
There are multiple possible explanations for adolescents' continued use of in-person methods to meet romantic partners. During the school year, adolescents spend the majority of their time engaging in activities with other adolescents. Perhaps also characteristics of in-person methods of introduction and interaction that occur less often online than in person for adolescents-such as a recommendation by a mutual acquaintance, seeing a person's body language, or frequent unintentional encounters-have a much stronger influence on adolescents' formation of romantic relationships than other factors.
It could also be that adolescents' romantic relationships in general tend to be more naturally forming McKenna, as opposed to developing from targeted interactions engaged in for the purpose of forming a relationship. A better understanding of the process by which adolescents initiate romantic relationships online as compared to offline would help us better understand the motives behind online initiation of romantic relationships as well as the benefits and costs possibly associated with online initiation of romantic relationships among adolescents.
Although in some regards the prevalence of online romantic relationship formation among adolescents seems low, the prevalence nevertheless causes some concern of related costs. Thus, the online relationship is probably outside of traditional family supervision and the historical constraints of geographic propinquity Wellman, ; and it does not benefit from the support and supervision of the individual's social network McKenna et al.
These costs, however, do not necessarily undermine the benefits of online relationship formation, especially for groups of adolescents who have difficulty forming romantic relationships offline.
The Internet can provide this access and decrease other barriers to the formation of romantic relationships and, thus, can facilitate a normative, age-typical task for adolescents. Furthermore, forming relationships online provides opportunities for adolescents to gain social interaction skills particular to the online environment, an environment of ever increasing importance in daily lives.
The current study indicates the role of the online environment in adolescent relationship formation, particularly for LGBTQ adolescents. An important next step for research is to examine the nature of the romantic relationships adolescents form online.
This study not only makes a significant contribution to the limited research that has examined online dating among adolescents, but it also extends the existing research on adults to adolescents. The study data, however, are somewhat limited. As the data are cross-sectional, temporality cannot be determined.
The data also rely on weighting to be nationally representative.
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While we took a cautious approach and are confident in our analytic strategies, findings should be replicated in other national studies. Although appropriate to our research questions, this approach does not inform additional questions related to similarities among and differences between L, G, B, T, and Q adolescents in the initiation of online romantic relationships.
For example, future research might examine variations between LGBTQ groups in terms of the particular nature and extent of barriers to the formation of romantic relationships that they experience and the association of type and extent of barrier with online formation of romantic relationships. Such research would inform on variations in experiences of different minority, stigmatized, and hidden groups. This exclusion and methodology might have led to an oversampling of youth who spend relatively more time online and an overestimate of online initiation of romantic relationships.
There is also a possibility that the adolescents' online self-reports were not accurate. To increase accuracy, we used multiple procedures to limit participation only to those invited to participate and to encourage honest and accurate reporting.
Consequently, we are confident that the data accurately reflect the characteristics and experiences of the adolescents who participated in this study.
An additional consideration is that when we measured offline supportive relationships and popularity, we distinguished online and offline friends based on where they first met.
Although this distinction does not take into account the complexity of the process of forming and maintaining friendships interacting both online and offline at different times for different reasons and in different amountsit reflects the key characteristic of offline interaction, that is, the in-person context associated with friends including how they look, talk, relate to people, etc. This is information that people might not otherwise have if they had first met their friends online.
Despite the extent of Internet use in general and to connect socially with others specifically, results suggest that a minority of adolescents use the Internet to initiate romantic relationships. Furthermore, results suggest that the Internet benefits adolescents who have difficulty forming relationships as well as those who do not.
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We also thank the study participants for their time and willingness to participate in this study. All analyses were conducted with both combined samples and results compared. Results did not vary enough to warrant different conclusions based on the different samples. Therefore, we report results using the full combined sample.
Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.
Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Josephine D. Mile L. Kimberly J. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Adolesc.
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Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1. KorchmarosPhD, Mile L. MitllPhD. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Contact information for the corresponding author, Josephine D. Tucson Blvd. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Adolesc. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Purpose of the Study The current study examines a rates of online formation of romantic relationships among adolescents and b the influence that social factors and individual characteristics and behaviors have on adolescents' online formation of romantic relationships in order to further test the rich-get-rir and social compensation hypotheses.
Hypotheses The rich-get-rir hypothesis would be supported if offline access to potential romantic partners, offline supportive relationships, and popularity are positively related to online relationship initiation. Methods Participants Participants were 5, school-attending 1 adolescents in 5 th grade or above residing in the Unites States. LGBTQ identity Respondents indicated their sexual identity by choosing all options that applied to them-gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, queer, other, and not sure.
Other factors related to relationship initiation online These factors included respondent-reported race, ethnicity, age, household income, gender, and being born again or evangelical Christian.
Survey process measures Respondents reported whether they were alone and responded honestly when they completed the survey. Open in a separate window. Discussion Self-reported dating experiences of adolescents years of age living across the U.
Conclusion Despite the extent of Internet use in general and to connect socially with others specifically, results suggest that a minority of adolescents use the Internet to initiate romantic relationships. Footnotes 1 The sample was limited to school-attending adolescents to allow for examination of the influence of school-related indicators of the main variables of interest e. Contributor Information Josephine D.
The effects of drinking and sports on popularity of overweight adolescents: Implications for public policy. Journal of Public Health. See you online: Gender issues in college student use of instant messaging.
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Journal of Language and Social Psychology. Faith, family, and teen dating: Examining the effects of personal and household religiosity on adolescent romantic relationships. Review of Religious Research. Plans and the initiation of social relationships. Human Communication Research.
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College students' Internet use, relationship formation, and personality correlates. Dating and romantic experiences in adolescence. Interest in date or role play is a plus.
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