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They spoke a language that has no known close relatives , although it may be very distantly related to the Muskogean languages of the Creek Confederacy. The Natz are noted for being the only Mississippian culture with complex chiefdom characteristics to have survived long into the period after the European colonization of America began. Others had generally declined a century or two before European encounter. The Natz are also noted for having had an unusual social system of nobility classes and exogamous marriage practices. It was a strongly matrilineal kinship society, with descent reckoned along female lines. The paramount chief named the Great Sun was always the son of the Female Sun, whose daughter would be the mother of the next Great Sun. This ensured that the chiefdom stayed under the control of the single Sun lineage.

Great honor was associated with such sacrifice, and sometimes many Natz chose to follow a Sun into death. For example, at the death of the Tattooed Serpent intwo of his wives, one of his sisters nicknamed La Glorieuse by the Frenchhis first warriorhis doctor, his head servant and the servant's wife, his nurse, and a craftsman of war clubs, all chose to die with him.

Mothers sometimes sacrificed infants in such ceremonies, an act which conferred honor and special status to the mother. Relatives of adults who chose ritual suicide were likewise honored and rose in status.

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During the 18th century, the English and French colonies in the American southeast had a power struggle. The English colony of South Carolina had established a large trading network among the southeastern Native Americans. By it stretd west as far as the Mississippi River.

The Chickasaw Indians, who lived north of the Natz, were regularly visited by English traders and were well supplied with English trade goods. The most lucrative trade with the English involved Indian slaves.

For decades the Chickasaw conducted slave raids over a wide region. Chickasaw raiders were often joined by Natz and Yazoo warriors. The warriors raided over great distances to capture slaves from enemy tribes. For example, in a party of Chickasaw, Natz, and Yazoo raiders attacked the Chaouachas living near the mouth of the Mississippi River.

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The grand chief of the Chaouachas was killed; his wife and ten others were carried off as slaves to be sold to the English. English traders in the southeast had been operating for decades before the French arrived, but the French rapidly developed a rival trading network.

Most Indian groups sought trade with as many Europeans as possible, encouraging competition and price reductions. Many tribes developed internal pro-English and pro-French factions. The Natz appear to have developed such factions. By the s the Natz had a steady trade with the French and at least some contact with English traders.

These villages were in the southwestern part of Natz territory near the Mississippi River and French contact. The pro-English faction's villages lay to the northeast, closer to the Chickasaw and English contact, and further from the Mississippi River.

When violence broke out between the Natz and the French, the village of White Apple was usually the main source of hostility. The French regularly described the Natz as ruled with absolute, despotic authority by the Great Sun and Tattooed Serpent. The existence of two opposing factions was well known and documented.

The Great Sun and Tattooed Serpent repeatedly pointed out their difficulty in controlling the hostile Natz. It is likely that the White Apple faction functioned at least semi-independently. Whatever power the family of the Great Sun and Tattooed Serpent did have over outlying villages was reduced in the late s after both died. They were succeeded by relatively young, inexperienced leaders.

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While the new Great Sun was technically the paramount chief of the Natz, the chief of White Apple became the eldest Sun chief and had more political clout than the Great Sun. The French continued to hold the Great Sun responsible for the conduct of all Natz villages. They insisted on dealing with the Natz as if the people were a unified nation ruled from its capital, the Grand Village of the Natz. During the s and s, French presence and settlement in Natz territory increased from a handful of traders and missionaries to hundreds of settlers some French colonists and African slaves.

French colonists intermarried with Natz women. In the s and s, war broke out four times between the French and the Natz. The last of these wars was the largest, in which the Natz destroyed the French settlements in their territory. In retaliation, the French eventually killed or deported most of the Natz people. Overshadowing the first three in scale and importance, the rebellion is sometimes simply called the Natz War.

All four conflicts involved the two opposing factions within the Natz nation. The Great Sun's faction was generally friendly toward the French. Violence usually began in or was triggered by events among the Natz of White Apple.

In all but the last war, peace was regained largely due to the efforts of Tattooed Serpent of the Grand Village of the Natz. Bienville, seeking to resolve the conflict, called a meeting of chiefs at the Grand Village of the Natz. The assembled chiefs proclaimed their innocence and implicated the war chiefs of White Apple. The Choctaw assisted the French in fighting the Natz War. The present-day city of Natz, Mississippi developed from the establishment of Fort Rosalie.

War broke out again in and Called the Second and Third Natz wars by the French, they were essentially two phases of a single conflict.

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It began in White Apple, where an argument over a debt resulted in a French trader's killing one of the Natz villagers. The French commander of Fort Rosalie reprimanded the murderer.

Unsatisfied with that response, Natz warriors of White Apple retaliated by attacking nearby French settlements. Tattooed Serpent's diplomatic efforts helped restore peace. But within a year, Bienville led a French army into Natz territory, intent on punishing the warriors of White Apple.

Bienville demanded the surrender of a White Apple chief as recompense for the earlier Natz attacks. Under pressure from the French and other Natz villages, White Apple turned the chief over to the French. This turned out to be the final affront to the Natz, and they were unwilling to yield to the French demand. They also sent messages to the African slaves of nearby French plantations, inviting them to join the Natz in rising up to drive out the French.

On November 29,the Natz attacked. Before the day was over, they had destroyed the entire French colony at Natz, including Fort Rosalie. Warriors killed more than colonists, mostly French men, and they took captive more than women, children, and slaves.

Two days later a force of about Choctaw attacked and captured the fort, killing at least Natz, and recovered about 50 French captives and African slaves. French leaders were delighted, but surprised when the Choctaw demanded ransoms for the captives. War continued until January ofwhen the French captured a Natz fort on the west side of the Mississippi. Between 75 and Natz warriors escaped and found refuge among the Chickasaw.

The young Great Sun and about of his followers were captured, subsequently enslaved, and shipped to work French plantations in the Caribbean. The Natz revolt expanded into a larger regional conflict with many repercussions.

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The Yazoo and Koroa Indians allied with the Natz and suffered the same fate in defeat. The Tunica were initially reluctant to fight on either side. In the summer ofa large group of Natz asked for refuge with the Tunica, which was given. During the night, the Natz turned on their hosts, killing 20 and plundering the town. In return, the Tunica attacked Natz refugees throughout the s and into the s. The Chickasaw tried to remain neutral, but when groups of Natz began seeking refuge inthe Chickasaw allied with the refugees against the French.

By the Chickasaw had accepted many refugees. When in the French demanded the surrender of Natz living among them, the Chickasaw refused. French-Chickasaw relations rapidly deteriorated, resulting in the Chickasaw Wars.

Some of the Natz warriors who had found refuge among the Chickasaw joined them in fighting the French. During the campaign against the Chickasaw, the French demanded again that the Natz among them be turned over.

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The Chickasaw, compromising, turned over several Natz, along with some French prisoners of war. During the s and s, as the French-Natz conflict developed into a French-Chickasaw war, the Choctaw fell into internal discord.

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The rift between pro-French and pro-English factions within the Choctaw nation read the point of violence and civil war. Louisiana's Africansboth slave and free blacks, were also affected by the Indian wars.

The Natz had encouraged African slaves to join them in rebellion.

Most did not, but some did. In January a group of African slaves fought off a Choctaw attack, giving the Natz time to regroup in their forts. More slaves fought for the French, however, as did some free people of color gens de couleur libres.

Because of the contributions of the free men of color during the Natz War, the French allowed them to join Louisiana's militias. This gave them important connections into the colonial society, contributing to their achieving an independent social status between the French colonists and slaves.

In the 19th century, the free people of color established a relatively large class, especially in New Orleans. Many worked as highly skilled artisans; others became educated; they established businesses and acquired property. After the war of - Natz society was in flux and the people scattered. Most survivors eventually settled among the Creek MuscogeeChickasawor with English colonists. Most of the latter two Natz groups ended up with the rokeedue to patterns of subsequent conflicts.

The main Natz town, dating to aboutwas located near present-day Murphy, North Carolina. The creek became known as Notchy Creek after the Natz. It was the birthplace of the rokee leader Dragging Canoewhose mother was Natz. A few remained in North Carolina.

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Their descendants are part of the federally recognized Eastern Band of rokee Indians. There are significant numbers of Natz in the federally recognized Muscogee Creek Nation. Today the primary settlements of the Natz Nation Nvce or Nahea treaty tribe, are within the southern halves of the Muscogee and rokee Nations in Oklahoma. The nation developed a constitution inwhich confirms its long-held traditions of self-government.

Approximately 6, Natz are members of the nation. Membership is based on matrilineal descent from people listed on the Dawes Rolls or the ated records of The nation allows citizens to have more than one tribal affiliation, asking only for work or donations to support the nation. Natz families are also found as members among the balance of the Five Civilized Tribes.

Small Natz communities and settlements may be found in and throughout the Southeast and as far north as North Carolina. Other Natz Sun leaders have included K.

For decades, the Natz language had been believed by scholars to be a language isolate. Its two last fluent speakers were Watt Sam and Nancy Raven. In the 21st century, the Natz nation is working to revive it as a spoken language among its people.

The Natz are noted for having an unusual social system of noble classes and exogamous marriage. Members of the highest ranking class, called Suns, are thought to have been required to marry only members of the lowest commoner class, called Stinkards or commoners. The Natz descent system has received a great deal of academic study. Scholars debate how the system functioned before the diaspora and the topic has generated controversy. Primary source documentation on the pre Natz kinship and descent system come from a relatively small number of French colonists who recorded information about Natz social life between about and Although fragmentary and ambiguous, the French accounts are the only historic documents of Natz society before Natz oral traditions have also been studied.

The first modern ethnographic study was done by John R. Swanton in Swanton's interpretations and conclusions are still generally accepted and widely cited. Later researrs have addressed various problems with Swanton's interpretation. In Swanton's interpretation, social status among the Natz was divided into two major categories, commoners and nobility. The nobility was further divided into three classes or castes called Suns, Nobles, and Honored People.

Noble exogamy was practiced, meaning that members of the noble classes could marry only commoners. A person's social status and class were determined matrilineally. That is, the children of female Suns, Nobles, or Honoreds were born into the status of their mothers.

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However, the children of male Suns and Nobles did not take on commoner status from their mothers, as noble exogamy and matrilineal descent would appear to dictate, but rather inherited one class below their fathers. In other words, children of male Suns became Nobles, while children of male Nobles became Honored, according to Swanton. Many later researrs have focused on the so-called "Natz Paradox" that Swanton's model is said to engender.

By the Chickasaw had accepted many refugees. When in the French demanded the surrender of Natz living among them, the Chickasaw refused. French-Chickasaw relations rapidly deteriorated, resulting in the Chickasaw Wars.

Some of the Natz warriors who had found refuge among the Chickasaw joined them in fighting the French. During the campaign against the Chickasaw, the French demanded again that the Natz among them be turned over. The Chickasaw, compromising, turned over several Natz, along with some French prisoners of war. During the s and s, as the French-Natz conflict developed into a French-Chickasaw war, the Choctaw fell into internal discord.

The rift between pro-French and pro-English factions within the Choctaw nation read the point of violence and civil war. Louisiana's Africansboth slave and free blacks, were also affected by the Indian wars.

The Natz had encouraged African slaves to join them in rebellion. Most did not, but some did. In January a group of African slaves fought off a Choctaw attack, giving the Natz time to regroup in their forts.

More slaves fought for the French, however, as did some free people of color gens de couleur libres. Because of the contributions of the free men of color during the Natz War, the French allowed them to join Louisiana's militias.

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This gave them important connections into the colonial society, contributing to their achieving an independent social status between the French colonists and slaves. In the 19th century, the free people of color established a relatively large class, especially in New Orleans. Many worked as highly skilled artisans; others became educated; they established businesses and acquired property.

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After the war of - Natz society was in flux and the people scattered. Most survivors eventually settled among the Creek MuscogeeChickasawor with English colonists.

Most of the latter two Natz groups ended up with the rokeedue to patterns of subsequent conflicts.

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The main Natz town, dating to aboutwas located near present-day Murphy, North Carolina. The creek became known as Notchy Creek after the Natz. It was the birthplace of the rokee leader Dragging Canoewhose mother was Natz and kidnapped as a young girl. A few remained in North Carolina.

Their descendants are part of the federally recognized Eastern Band of rokee Indians. There are significant numbers of Natz citizens within the federally recognized tribe of the Muscogee Creek Nation. During this time, the Natz enjoyed signatory status and membership within the Creek Confederacy and established their town near the Coosa River in Talladega County, Alabama. Today the primary settlements of the Natz Nation Nvce or Nahea treaty tribe, are within the southern halves of the Muscogee and rokee Nations in Oklahoma.

The nation developed a constitution inwhich confirms its long-held traditions of self-government. Approximately 6, Natz are members of the nation. Membership is based on matrilineal descent from people listed on the Dawes Rolls or the ated records of The nation allows citizens to have more than one tribal affiliation, asking only for work or donations to support the nation. Natz families are also found as members among the balance of the Five Civilized Tribes. Small Natz communities and settlements may be found in and throughout the Southeast and as far north as North Carolina.

Other Natz Sun leaders have included K. The Natz language is generally considered a language isolate. Its two last fluent speakers were Watt Sam and Nancy Raven. In the 21st century, the Natz nation is working to revive it as a spoken language among its people.

The Natz are noted for having an unusual social system of noble classes and exogamous marriage. Members of the highest ranking class, called Suns, are thought to have been required to marry only members of the lowest commoner class, called Stinkards or commoners. The Natz descent system has received a great deal of academic study. Scholars debate how the system functioned before the diaspora and the topic has generated controversy. Primary source documentation on the pre Natz kinship and descent system is based on a relatively small number of French colonists who recorded information about Natz social life between about and Fragmentary and ambiguous, the French accounts are the only historic accounts of Natz society before Natz oral traditions have also been studied.

The first modern ethnographic study was done by John R. Swanton in Swanton's interpretations and conclusions are still generally accepted and widely cited. Later researrs have addressed various problems with Swanton's interpretation.

In Swanton's interpretation, social status among the Natz was divided into two major categories, commoners and nobility. The nobility was further divided into three classes or castes called Suns, Nobles, and Honored People.

Noble exogamy was practiced, meaning that members of the noble classes could marry only commoners. A person's social status and class were determined matrilineally.

That is, the children of female Suns, Nobles, or Honoreds were born into the status of their mothers. However, the children of male Suns and Nobles did not take on commoner status from their mothers, as noble exogamy and matrilineal descent would appear to dictate, but rather were ranked one class below their fathers.

In other words, children of male Suns became Nobles, while children of male Nobles became Honored, according to Swanton. Many later researrs have focused on the so-called "Natz Paradox" that Swanton's model is said to engender. The paradox is that if the rules described were followed strictly, over time the commoner class would become depleted, while the lower nobility classes would grow larger.

Three general changes to Swanton's interpretation have been proposed to address the Natz Paradox. First, a type of asymmetrical descent may have been practiced in which only male children of male nobility inherited the social class one step below their fathers, while female children of male nobles inherited their mothers' commoner status in matrilineal descent. Related to this is the idea that the Honored category was not a social class but rather an honorific title given to commoner men and was not hereditary.

Second, the assimilation of foreign people, such as groups of Timucuacould have at least delayed the Natz Paradox's effects. Researrs who argue for this idea often couple it with the proposal that the Natz system of noble exogamy in the early 18th century was a relatively recent development in their society. According to this argument, during the relatively chaotic 16th and 17th centuries, the Natz maintained their traditional social system by adapting it to new conditions.

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They assimilated foreigners as commoners and made a new requirement of noble exogamy. Third, the social classes described by Swanton were not classes or castes, as the terms are generally used in English, but exogamous ranked clans or moietieswith patterns of descent common to most Native peoples of the American southeast. Tribes such as the Chickasaw, Creek, Timucua, Caddoand Apalae were organized into ranked clans, with the requirement that one cannot marry within one's clan.

Related to this theory is the idea that Honored status was not a class or a clan, but a title.

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Sun status, likewise, may not have been a class but rather a term for the royal family. If true, Natz society would have been a moiety of just two groups, commoners and nobles. The requirement of exogamy may have applied to Suns only, rather than the entire nobility.

Some researrs argue that the prohibition against Suns' marrying Suns was largely a matter of incest taboo. In the early 18th century, all the Suns of a given generation appear to have been related within three degrees of consanguinity siblings, first cousins, and second cousins. The custom of Suns' marrying commoners rather than Nobles may have been a preference rather than a requirement. Finally, while Swanton's interpretation claims that Nobles were also required to marry commoners, later researrs have questioned this idea.

They have noted in particular a mistranslation of the primary sources and a misreading by Swanton. In other words, it could be that only Suns were required to marry exogamously, and this requirement may have been mainly a result of the taboo against incest. Lorenz proposes that the entire kinship system was not based on classes, castes, or clans, but rather degrees of genealogical separation from the ruling Sun matriline.

Lorenz's interpretation does not include asymmetrical descent or noble exogamy. Rather, a person was a Sun if he or she was within three degrees of matrilateral separation from the ruling matriline's eldest female Sun called the "White Woman".

Nobles were those people who were four, five, or six degrees removed from the White Woman, while people seven degrees or more removed were commoners.

In this system, the male children of male ruling Suns would naturally descend one "class" per generation, and would be required to marry outside the "class" to avoid incest.

The only exception was the case of a male child of a male Noble, who acquired the Honored title by birth. Many researrs agree that the Honored group was not a noble class but rather a title of prestige given to commoner men for acts of valor in war, or to commoner women who ritually sacrificed their babies upon the death of a Sun as part of funeral and mourning practices.

The Natz give Potentilla canadensis as a drug to those who are believed to be bewitd. Natz people. Main article: Natz revolt. Main article: Natz language.

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Peter H. Wood, Gregory A. Waselkov, and M. University of Oklahoma Press. Barnett, Jr. Retrieved Balvay, Arnaud The Natz Indians: A History to University Press of Mississippi.

Conclusion; and pp. Brown, John P.

The Natz received the party well, but when the French returned upriver, they were met by a hostile force of about 1, Natz warriors and hurried away. At the time of the next French visit in the s, the Natz were welcoming and friendly. When Iberville visited the Natz in , he was given a three-day-long peace ceremony, which involved the smoking of a ceremonial pipe and a. Online Dating in Natz for Free The only Free Online Dating site for dating, love, relationships and someone thats real,honest,trueful,respectful,trust worthy i love going to movies,shopping,out to eat,bowling,church,parties,taken walks,ridding around,enjoin. natz Mississippi mrzfaithness 23 Single Woman Seeking Men. Is it u. I'm a single 34 year-old white and Puerto Rican female.

Southern Publishers. DuVal, Kathleen In Gregory A. Waselkov ed. University of Nebraska Press. Gallay, Alan Yale University Press. Kimball, Geoffrey In Heather K. Hardy; Janine Scancarelli eds. Native languages of the Southeastern United States. Lawson, Charles F. Retrieved on 21 Aug Lorenz, Karl G. In Bonnie G. McEwan ed. University Press of Florida. Mooney, James. Myths of the rokee Dover ed.

Dover Publications. White, Douglas R. Murdock; Richard Scaglion October X 4 : - Archived from the original on Natz Nation of Oklahoma Flag. EnglishFrenchNatz.



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