Scientists have found evidence of hot springs near sites where ancient hominids settled, long before the control of fire. The region has preserved many fossils and stone tools, indicating that early humans settled and hunted there. The proximity of these hydrothermal features raises the possibility that early humans could have used hot springs as a cooking resource, for instance to boil fresh kills, long before humans are thought to have used fire as a controlled source for cooking. Summons and his colleagues have published their findings today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In , Sistiaga joined an archaeological expedition to Olduvai Gorge, where researrs with the Olduvai Paleoanthropology and Paleoecology Project were collecting sediments from a 3-kilometer-long layer of exposed rock that was deposited around 1. This geologic layer was striking because its sandy composition was markedly different from the dark clay layer just below, which was deposited 1. It's thought that around 1.
But these newly unearthed ones were sealed and intact.
That night, with guards posted at the dig, the two researrs barely slept. The following day, they pried open the marble door to the first tomb. They stepped into a large, vaulted, double chamber strewn with smashed pottery, silver vases, bronze vessels, armor and weapons, including a golden breastplate and a beautiful gilded arrow quiver. Painted on one wall was a breathtaking frieze depicting Philip II and a young Alexander, both on horseback, hunting lions and other animals.
Opening a marble sarcophagus with trembling hands, Andronikos found a small golden coffin, or larnax, with a relief star on the lid. Lifting it, he saw burned bones and a golden wreath. A shiver ran down his spine.
He was unable to breathe. If the dating was correct, he was almost certainly holding the bones of Philip II.
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The discovery, widely reported in the news mediawas hailed as the archaeological find of the century. The following year, with Kottaridi as his assistant, Andronikos unsealed the unlooted tomb of Alexander IV, the son of Alexander the Great. Kottaridi took charge of Aigai in and has been overseeing it ever since. We have a much clearer idea of the history and the form of the city.
It was spread out with different districts serving different functions. The Museum of the Royal Tombs, completed inis a dark, atmospheric, underground space inside the Great Tumulus. The site of the palace is nearly a mile away, on a broad terrace of land in the foothills.
On a quiet Sunday afternoon, with Kottaridi in the passenger seat, I drive up there. The peristyle, or main courtyard, issquare feet-room for 8, people to gather.
The peristyle was flanked by stone colonnades, which we are restoring to a height of six meters. We are redoing all the mosaics on the floor. It is very difficult to find stonemasons and mosaic-makers who can do this work by hand. By B.
Now he was planning to invade the Persian Empire in Asia Minor. He had already sent an advance contingent of 10, troops. The rest of the army would join them after the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra no connection with the Egyptian queen in October. He turned the wedding into a huge gala for dignitaries and ambassadors from all over Greece and the Balkans.
The next morning they all gathered at the theater for the final celebration. It began with a sunrise procession. Twelve men came through the theater holding up statues of the 12 Olympian gods.
They were followed by a statue of Philip, suggesting that he had crossed the permeable line between men and gods and was now divine. Then came one-eyed Philip himself, scarred and limping, but radiating power and authority. He wore a white cloak and a golden crown, and most dramatically, he was unarmed. Macedonian men typically wore their weapons, but Philip wanted to convey his invincibility.
When he read the center of the theater, he stopped and faced the ering crowd.
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Philip fell dead and his white cloak turned red. The assassin sprinted to the city gates, where horses were waiting for him.
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Three bodyguards who were friends of Alexander gave chase, caught him and killed him on the spot. The assassin was Pausanias of Orestes in Upper Macedonia, and Philip had recently jilted him for a new male lover.
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Pausanias was then gang-raped by a man named Attalus and his cronies, and turned over to the stable hands for more sexual abuse. When Pausanias reported this outrage to Philip, the king did nothing. Did Pausanias murder Philip for not punishing Attalus, as some scholars believe?
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Or was Pausanias the paid instrument of more powerful individuals who wanted Philip dead, as other scholars believe? We know that Olympias loathed her husband and yearned for Alexander to take the throne. King Darius II of Persia is another suspect with an obvious motive: Philip was preparing to invade his empire. Prominent Athenians are under suspicion, because they resented Macedonian rule. The finger has also been pointed at Alexander, who had quarreled with his father and would gain the throne with his death.
That last theory is a foolish slander against Alexander, Kottaridi says.
She suspects a plot by a rival faction of nobles. Palace intrigues had long been a blood sport in Macedonia. The kings at Aigai-Philip was almost never died of old age. The semicircular theater is a short distance from the palace and was built as part of the same complex. For Kottaridi, it is a place of the greatest historical significance, and she yearns to restore it. She sighs and dabs tears from her eyes.
Alexander threw the biggest funeral in Macedonian history for his father. After burning the body on a pyre, attendants retrieved the bones, washed them in wine, wrapped them in purple cloth and laid them in a golden larnax. The larnax was then placed in a sarcophagus and the tomb was sealed. Alexander, facing a revolt in Greece, mard out to crush it, and when he returned to Aigai a year later he threw a party.
Although Alexander was a brilliant commander, and his campaign in Asia would far exceed anything that Philip had imagined, it was his inheritance that made it possible.
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Sculptures are first-century Roman copies of Greek originals. Smithsonian Magazine. A marble-inlaid floor from an assembly room.
There are shimmering mountains, a turquoise lake, and green pastures dotted with rry trees. In a nearby alpine restaurant Swiss pensioners play cards overlooking a snow-covered glacier. The local tourist board has even devised a name for the area, 50km south of Zurich - "Swiss knife valley". At least the firm's original client - the Swiss army - is still ordering knives. On my way to Victorinox, I bump into two Swiss army recruits heading back to barracks after a weekend off.
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Do they have a Swiss army knife? The standard-issue knife given to every Swiss soldier has the famous red Swiss flag badging and four functions: a bottle and can opener, a file, and a blade. But Swiss troops do take part in UN peacekeeping missions. We are currently in Afghanistan, Kosovo and South Korea. Over the past 10 years, Chinese firms have churned out thousands of ap copies of the Swiss army knife, seemingly indistinguishable from the real thing.
On closer inspection, the Chinese fakes are clearly inferior, with none of the satisfying "clicks" that distinguish the Swiss original.
Victorinox boasts that its precision-made springs are indestructible.
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Now the Swiss firm is fighting back. Last month it registered the deep red colour of its Swiss army knives as a patent. It has recently tipped off Chinese officials, who have staged raids for the first time on illegal factories.
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Victorinox has also introduced a host of new products - a kids' Swiss army knife; a blade-free air-travel version; and - most successfully- one with a USB port that allows you to link your knife up to your computer. In the past 75 years the firm hasn't sacked anybody. Its employees receive generous wages - and are even given time off to perform Alexander technique stretching exercises in front of their steel-bashing machines.
Though the factory is heavily automated, some products are still partly assembled by hand.
Elsener, 47, is a self-effacing man who drives a Peugeot "My parents taught me a certain modesty. We are a Catholic family.
I get satisfaction from doing a job I enjoy. I don't need a Ferrari".
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He points out that the Swiss army knife wouldn't be very, well, Swiss if he exported production to Canton, as other manufacturers have done.
He admits, however, that the quality of rival Chinese knives is improving. And they just come along and rip it off.
It isn't very nice," he complains meekly. It is perhaps appropriate that the Victorinox factory sits just underneath a mountain range known as Mythos. The firm is keen to promote the legendary virtues of the knife - which has been used to save children from sinking cars, repair the space shuttle, and deliver foals.
A German doctor last week sent the firm gruesome photos showing how he used a multi-tool knife to cut off the leg of a tsunami victim in Sri Lanka. He would have preferred a saw, he said, but there wasn't one available.
The aesthetics of the Swiss army knife, meanwhile, remain just as pleasing as ever. The firm's most important market is the United States, closely followed by Germany, Switzerland and Britain.
The knife's enduring popularity in the US can be explained by the fact that after the second world war, US soldiers bought the knives from army surplus stores and took them home.